China - Telecoms, Mobile and Broadband

China - Telecoms, Mobile and Broadband

Code: BC2015-16 | Published: Dec-2015 | Pages: 117 | Budde Communication Pty Ltd
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Chinas massive telecoms and digital market steams aheadChinas telecom market is the largest in the world in many respects but is served by only three operators; China Telecom, China Unicom and China Mobile. All three are integrated providers of telecom services although China Mobile is the largest in the crucial mobile market.

Chinas fixed-line market is in decline due to voice mobile substitution although the two main fixed-line operators of China Telecom and China Unicom have aggressively deployed and marketed fibre broadband to increase the value of maintaining a fixed-line. Mobile subscriptions outnumber voice and voice is giving way to data as the primary revenue generator.

China boasts the largest broadband subscriber base in the world, with the majority of users accessing the Internet through mobile devices. Despite high broadband penetration China possesses one of the slowest broadband speeds globally although this should change in 2016 following network architecture improvements such as the October 2015 completion of a two year project to increase the number of nationwide Internet traffic hubs from three to ten.

DSL was the initial driving force behind fixed broadband growth in China, followed later by EPON fibre and now GPON fibre. HFC makes up a tiny proportion of total broadband connections as despite the fact that China also possesses the largest cable TV subscriber base in the world, cable TV operators were late in upgrading cable TV networks with the necessary infrastructure, missing a significant slice of the countrys rapidly expanding fixed broadband market.

With the worlds largest online population, Chinas digital economy rapidly grew to cater to the needs of the online masses. Much of the initial growth in Chinas digital economy was underpinned by the online demand for information, media and commerce, giving rise to Chinas three domestic digital economy giants; Baidu (search), Alibaba (e-commerce) and Tencent (social media). Traditional media players largely struggled to keep pace with the migration of audiences to online media, while Chinas telcos missed the opportunity to develop into digital giants as they focused on deploying fixed and mobile broadband networks.

Also evolving within Chinas digital economy to meet the needs of Chinas online audience are the banking and financial services industry, public administration services, health services and education services.

Chinas digital economy will continue to grow as only half of Chinas 1.4 billion people are online. This online audience is growing wealthier due to Chinas consistent macroeconomic growth and demographic trends such as ongoing urbanisation. As a consequence Chinas online audience is increasingly willing to spend online, a trend encouraged by the government as it seeks to balance the economy away from an overreliance on building infrastructure and exporting goods towards domestic consumption.

The fate of Chinas traditional media players is largely secure given that they are government owned and hence seen as an integral part of the governments desire to control the media. The competition for audience share and hence revenue between privately and state-owned operators reflects the same competitive challenges faced by state-owned operators in other industries in Chinas evolving economy.
Although China boasts the largest mobile market in the world, there is still much room for growth given the relatively recent focus on large scale LTE investment. China Telecom, China Mobile and China Unicom operate a variety of technology platforms that reflect the commercial preferences of operators and the industry development policies of Chinas government.

Entering 2016 all three mobile network operators are focused on deploying LTE networks and monetizing such investments by enticing end users to upgrade to higher ARPU LTE products such as mobile broadband.

Operators are also investing in technologies design to maximise the user experience such as Rich Communication Service (RCS), Voice over LTE (VoLTE) and Near Field Communications (NFC).

Given the size of Chinas mobile population and its position as a ""mobile first"" country, it is not surprising that China possesses a vibrant mobile content and applications industry, with China overtaking the USA in terms of iOS app downloads in 2015. Growth is only set to continue given the relatively low penetration of LTE smartphone handsets.

Key Developments:

Chinas government strengthens IOT policies to boost economic growth
Chinas government further opens the telecom market to private companies
China possesses the worlds largest M2M market with significant growth evident in the connected car market.
The Majority of Chinas online audiences accesses the Internet via mobile
Fibre has overtaken DSL to become the key fixed broadband technology platform
Internet speeds double after China completes a two year project to increase the number of national Internet hubs from three to ten.
Chinas big digital giants are consolidating their position by branching into non-core areas through investments in Chinas many start-ups, some of which were launched by ex-employees, mirroring the trend that developed Silicon Valleys start-up ecosystem.

Chinas broadcasters are under threat as audiences shift from traditional broadcasters to online media platforms operated by new players.
The TV is expected to become one of the biggest battlegrounds for Chinas digital giants as its role evolves into a dedicated hardware interface into one of Chinas many developing ""walled garden"" digital ecosystems.
Chinas largely state-owned CATV industry is undergoing consolidation to capture the economies of scale that was not possible through
operating thousands of smaller CATV operators.

Chinas massive online population allows a number of social media platforms to flourish, a number of which have pivoted towards e-commerce in order to monetize traffic.

Chinas digital economy is yet to reach its full potential as just over half of the population is online.
China Telecom and China Unicom are focusing on LTE-FDD deployments after finally receiving the necessary licences
LTE subscribers expected to surpass 3G subscribers by 2016

LTE drives almost double the amount of data used compared with 3G
Mobile is the most popular Internet access method in China
China possesses the largest M2M market in the world
To cut costs Chinas operators have pooled assets into a Tower sharing joint venture company
Increasing focus on mobile apps by Chinas digital media giants due to the proliferation of mobile phones and LTE
China overtook the USA in terms of iOS app downloads.Companies covered in this report include:
China Mobile, China Telecom, China Unicom, Alibaba, JD.com, Baidu, Tencent, SINA, Weibo, Sohu, Xiaomi, Meilishuo, Mogujie, RenRen, China Central Television (CCTV), Youku, Iqiyi/Qiyi, V.QQ.com, BesTV, UnionPay, Apple Inc.

Table of Contents


1. Key statistics
2. Telecommunications market
2.1 Overview
2.2 Historical overview
2.2.1 Background of Chinas telecom market - 1980s and 1990s
2.2.2 Background of Chinas telecom market - 2000-2007
2.2.3 Chinas telecom market restructure in 2008
2.2.4 Overview of Chinas telecom market - 2008-2012
2.2.5 Trade dispute - 2013/2014
3. Regulatory environment
3.1 Historic overview
3.2 Regulatory authority
3.2.1 Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT)
3.2.2 China Internet Network Information Centre
3.3 Government policies
3.3.1 Private investment in state-controlled industries
3.3.2 Broadband China
3.3.3 Three-network Convergence Policy
3.3.4 Internet Plus
3.3.5 IOT / M2M
3.4 Telecommunications Regulations
3.5 Licensing
3.6 Interconnect
3.6.1 Local calls and domestic long distance calls
3.6.2 International long distance calls
3.6.3 Internet backbone networks
3.6.4 SMS
3.6.5 MMS
3.7 Tariff Setting
3.8 Universal Service Obligation
4. Competition issues
5. Fixed network operators
5.1 Introduction
5.2 China Telecom
5.2.1 Company overview
5.2.2 China Telecom: Financial statistics
5.2.3 China Telecom: Operations statistics
5.3 China Unicom
5.3.1 Company overview
5.3.2 China Unicom: Financial statistics
5.3.3 China Unicom: Operations statistics
5.4 China Tower
5.5 CITIC Networks
6. Telecommunications infrastructure
6.1 Overview of the national telecom network
6.2 Forecasts
6.2.1 Forecast fixed-line subscribers - 2013-2018
6.3 New developments
6.4 International infrastructure (satellite, submarine)
6.4.1 Terrestrial and submarine cable infrastructure
6.4.2 Satellite infrastructure
6.4.3 International Internet bandwidth
6.5 Specific IT developments (data centres, cloud computing)
6.5.1 Cloud Computing
6.6 Smart infrastructure
6.6.1 Smart grids
6.6.2 Smart cities
6.6.3 Connected homes
6.6.4 Connected car
7. Broadband market
7.1 Introduction and statistical overview
7.1.1 Market analysis
7.1.2 Forecast Internet users - 2020 - 2026
7.1.3 Broadband statistics
7.1.4 Forecast broadband subscribers - 2017 - 2020
7.1.5 IP Addresses
7.1.6 Domain names
7.1.7 Websites
7.2 Fibre-to-the-Premises (FttP) and Fibre-To-The-Home (FttH)
7.2.1 Introduction
7.2.2 China Telecom
7.2.3 China Unicom
7.3 Hybrid Fibre Coax (HFC) networks
7.4 Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) networks
7.4.1 Fixed wireless
8. Digital media
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Regulation
8.3 Key digital media players
8.3.1 Baidu
8.3.2 Tencent
8.3.3 SINA
8.3.4 Weibo
8.3.5 Sohu
8.4 Advertising
8.5 Television broadcasting
8.6 Internet Protocol TV (IPTV)
8.6.1 Alibaba
8.6.2 Baidu
8.6.3 Tencent
8.6.4 Xiaomi
8.6.5 China Telecom
8.6.6 China Unicom
8.7 Hybrid fibre coax cable (HFC)
8.7.1 Overview
8.7.2 Consolidation
8.7.3 CATV market regulations
8.7.4 Major operators
8.7.5 Statistics
8.7.6 Digital Cable TV
8.7.7 Next Generation Broadcasting network
8.8 Satellite TV
8.9 Video streaming
8.9.1 Major players
8.10 Social media
8.10.1 Meilishuo
8.10.2 Mogujie
8.10.3 RenRen
8.11 Music
8.12 On line gaming and gambling
8.12.1 Major players
9. Digital economy
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Online activities
9.2.1 e-Commerce
9.2.2 e-Banking
9.2.3 e-payments
9.2.4 e-Government
9.2.5 e-Health
9.2.6 e-Education
10. Mobile communications
10.1 Market analysis
10.2 Mobile statistics
10.2.1 General statistics
10.2.2 Mobile broadband statistics
10.2.3 Forecasts
10.3 Regulatory issues
10.3.1 Licensing
10.3.2 Mobile Number Portability (MNP)
10.3.3 VAT Introduction
10.4 Mobile infrastructure
10.4.1 Digital networks
10.4.2 Other infrastructure developments
10.4.3 IoT and M2M networks
10.5 Major mobile operators
10.5.1 Operators
10.5.2 China Mobile Ltd (CML)
10.5.3 China Telecom
10.5.4 China Unicom
10.5.5 MVNOs
10.6 Mobile content and applications
10.6.1 Mobile internet
10.6.2 Rich Communication Services (RCS)
10.6.3 Mobile gaming
10.6.4 m-commerce
10.6.5 m-banking (payments/loans)
10.6.6 Mobile Advertising
10.6.7 m-TV
10.6.8 Apps
Table 1 - Country statistics - 2015
Table 2 - Telecom revenue and investment statistics - January - June 2015
Table 3 - Telephone network statistics - 2014
Table 4 - Internet user statistics - 2015
Table 5 - Fixed Broadband statistics - 2015
Table 6 - Mobile statistics - 2015
Table 7 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 8 - Telecom industry revenue and fixed asset investment - 2006 - 2013
Table 9 - China Telecom financial data - 2001 - 2015
Table 10 - China Telecom revenue breakdown - 2009 - 2015
Table 11 - China Telecom fixed-line, fixed broadband subscribers and ARPU - 2004 - 2015
Table 12 - China Telecom - Caller ID subscribers and Fixed-line Ring Tone subscribers - 2010 - 2014
Table 13 - China Unicom financial data - 2001 - 2015
Table 14 - China Unicom mobile and fixed-line service revenue structure - 2009 - 2015
Table 15 - China Unicom mobile and fixed-line voice and non-voice revenue - 2008 - 2015
Table 16 - China Unicom - Fixed line Local access subscribers - 2008 - 2015
Table 17 - China Unicom domestic long-distance outbound call minutes - 2008 - 2014
Table 18 - China Unicom international long-distance outbound call minutes - 2008 - 2014
Table 19 - Fixed-line and mobile subscriptions and penetration rate - 1998 - 2014
Table 20 - Fixed-line local telephone calls - 2006 - 2013
Table 21 - Fixed-line traditional long-distance telephone calls - 2006 - 2013
Table 22 - Forecast fixed-line subscribers and penetration - lower band: 2014; 2018
Table 23 - Forecast fixed-line subscribers and penetration - higher band: 2014; 2018
Table 24 - China total international outlet bandwidth: 2006 - 2014
Table 25 - International outlet bandwidth for key networks - 2004 - 2014
Table 26 - Internet users and annual change - 1996 - 2016
Table 27 - Average time online per week - 2010 - 2014
Table 28 - Urban and Rural Internet users - 2013 - 2014
Table 29 - Gender structure of Internet users - 2011 - 2014
Table 30 - Comparison in age structure of China internet users - 2008 - 2014
Table 31 - PC penetration in Enterprises by employee size - 2014
Table 32 - PC penetration in Enterprises by location - 2014
Table 33 - Internet usage in Enterprises by employee size - 2014
Table 34 - Internet usage in Enterprises by location - 2014
Table 35 - Internet access methods by Enterprises - 2014
Table 36 - Forecast internet users and penetration - lower band: 2020; 2026
Table 37 - Forecast internet users and penetration - higher band: 2020; 2026
Table 38 - Fixed broadband subscribers, annual change and penetration - 2000 - 2016
Table 39 - Internet access by Internet access device type - 2013 - 2014
Table 40 - Internet access locations for computers - 2013 - 2014
Table 41 - China Telecom fixed broadband subscribers and annual change - 2003 - 2015
Table 42 - China Unicom - Fixed line Broadband subscribers - 2008 - 2015
Table 43 - China Unicom - Fixed-line Broadband and Local Access ARPU - 2008 - 2015
Table 44 - China Unicom - Number of Fixed Broadband Access Ports - 2010 - 2015
Table 45 - China Unicom - International Internet and cable capacity - 2010 - 2014
Table 46 - Forecast broadband subscribers and population penetration - higher band: 2017; 2020
Table 47 - Forecast broadband subscribers and household penetration - lower band: 2017; 2020
Table 48 - IPv4 address resources in China and annual change - 2005 - 2014
Table 49 - IPv6 address resources in China and annual change - 2009 - 2014
Table 50 - Total domain names in China and annual change - 2005 - 2014
Table 51 - Classified domain names in China - 2014
Table 52 - Classified .cn domain names - 2014
Table 53 - Growth of websites in China and annual change - 2002 - 2014
Table 54 - China Telecom - FttX homes passed and Subscribers - 2013 - 2015
Table 55 - DSL internet subscribers - 2000 - 2014
Table 56 - Baidu financial data - 2012 - 2015
Table 57 - Tencent financial data - 2012 - 2015
Table 58 - Tencent capital expenditure - 2013 - 2015
Table 59 - Tencent - Monthly Active Users of various products - 2013 - 2015
Table 60 - Tencent - Mobile Monthly Active Users for QQ and Qzone- 2014 - 2015
Table 61 - SINA financial data - 2012 - 2015
Table 62 - SINA revenue breakdown - 2012 - 2015
Table 63 - Weibo financial data - 2012 - 2015
Table 64 - Weibo operational data - 2012 - 2015
Table 65 - Sohu financial data - 2010 - 2015
Table 66 - China online advertising revenue - 2012 - 2018
Table 67 - China Central TV advertising revenue - 2002 - 2014
Table 68 - China Telecom ITV revenue - 2012 - 2015
Table 69 - Cable TV subscriptions and annual growth - 1996 - 2016
Table 70 - Digital cable TV subscribers and penetration rate - 2002 - 2016
Table 71 - Online video users and utilisation rate - 2009 - 2014
Table 72 - Online video viewing by device - 2014
Table 73 - Online video viewing by Desktop/laptop and Mobile - 2012 - 2014
Table 74 - Online video viewing by venue and device - 2014
Table 75 - Channels to access and watch online videos - 2014
Table 76 - TV terminal device utilisation by online video viewers - 2014
Table 77 - Usage frequency of Internet TV features - 2014
Table 78 - Brand Penetration rates of video sites - 2014
Table 79 - RenRen financial data - 2010 - 2015
Table 80 - RenRen operational data - 2012 - 2014
Table 81 - Online music users and utilisation rate - 2009 - 2014
Table 82 - Online gaming users and utilisation rate - 2009 - 2014
Table 83 - Time spent playing online games daily - 2014
Table 84 - Payment for PC online games - 2014
Table 85 - Utilisation rate and number of users of different network applications - 2012 - 2014
Table 86 - Utilisation rate and number of users of different network applications - 2009 - 2011
Table 87 - Market share of online search engines - 2005 - 2010; 2012; 2014
Table 88 - Online shopping users and utilisation rate - 2009 - 2014
Table 89 - Brand penetration of online shopping platforms - 2014
Table 90 - Proportion of businesses engaged in e-commerce by industry - 2014
Table 91 - Proportion of businesses engaged in e-procurement by industry - 2014
Table 92 - Alibaba financial data - 2011 - 2015
Table 93 - Alibaba revenue breakdown - 2011 - 2015
Table 94 - Alibaba GMV: Taobao, Tmall, Total, Mobile - 2013 - 2015
Table 95 - Alibaba Annual active buyers and Mobile MAU - 2014 - 2015
Table 96 - JD.com financial data - 2012 - 2015
Table 97 - JD.com - Gross Merchandise Volume (GMV) - 2011 - 2015
Table 98 - JD.com - Active customer accounts - 2012 - 2015
Table 99 - JD.com - Fulfilled orders - 2012 - 2015
Table 100 - Online banking users and utilisation rate - 2009 - 2014
Table 101 - Brand penetration of online payment platforms - 2014
Table 102 - Mobile subscribers and annual change - 1995 - 2016
Table 103 - Online Instant messaging users and utilisation rate - 2009 - 2014
Table 104 - China Mobile 3G and LTE subscribers - 2009 - 2015
Table 105 - China Mobile - mobile data traffic - 2010 - 2015
Table 106 - China Telecom - Monthly Average data Traffic per handset - 2011 - 2015
Table 107 - China Telecom - Total Handset data traffic - 2012 - 2015
Table 108 - China Unicom - Total Handset data traffic - 2010 - 2015
Table 109 - China Unicom - Average data usage per subscriber - 2010 - 2014
Table 110 - China Unicom - Mobile broadband data card subscribers - 2010 - 2014
Table 111 - Forecast Mobile Internet subscribers lower band forecast - 2015; 2020
Table 112 - Forecast Mobile Internet subscribers higher band forecast - 2015; 2020
Table 113 - Little Smart (PHS) subscribers - 2002 - 2012
Table 114 - China Mobile revenue, capex, EBITDA margin, net profit - 2000 - 2015
Table 115 - CAPEX breakdown - 2014 - 2015
Table 116 - China Mobile ARPU - 1997 - 2015
Table 117 - China Mobile data services revenue breakdown - 2010 - 2015
Table 118 - China Mobile subscribers, annual change, and market share - 1997 - 2015
Table 119 - China Telecom mobile and 3G/4G subscribers and ARPU - 2002 - 2015
Table 120 - China Telecom - SMS messages sent and Mobile Ring Tone subscribers - 2010 - 2014
Table 121 - China Unicom 2G and 3G/4G subscribers - 2002 - 2015
Table 122 - China Unicom 2G and 3G/4G Blended MOU - 2002 - 2014
Table 123 - China Unicom 2G and 3G/4G ARPU- 2008 - 2015
Table 124 - China Unicom - WO App store registered users - 2011 - 2014
Table 125 - China Unicom - Mobile music subscribers - 2011 - 2014
Table 126 - China Unicom - Number of GSM and 3G/4G base stations - 2010 - 2014
Table 127 - Utilisation rate and number of users for mobile applications - 2013 - 2014
Table 128 - Mobile internet subscribers and annual change - 2006 - 2014
Table 129 - Mobile online gaming users and utilisation rate - 2010 - 2014
Table 130 - Game playing experience of mobile gamers - 2014
Table 131 - Daily average mobile gaming duration - 2014
Table 132 - Amount spent on games - 2014
Table 133 - Mobile advertising response rates - 2014
Table 134 - Mobile advertising acceptability by targeting criteria - 2014
Table 135 - Preferred mobile advertising format - 2014
Table 136 - Apple net sales for Greater China - 2012 - 2015
Chart 1 - China fixed-line and mobile subscribers - 2003 - 2014
Chart 2 - China Telecom revenue breakdown for voice and data - 2009 - 2015
Chart 3 - China Unicom revenue breakdown for voice and data - 2008 - 2015
Chart 4 - China Unicom subscriber data - mobile, fixed-line, broadband - 2008 - 2015
Chart 5 - Fixed-line traditional long-distance telephone calls - 2008 - 2013
Chart 6 - China total international outlet bandwidth - 2006 - 2014
Chart 7 - Number of Internet users and annual change in China - 2000 - 2016
Chart 8 - Comparison in age structure of China internet users - 2008 - 2014
Chart 9 - China broadband subscribers and household penetration - 2006 - 2016
Chart 10 - IPv4 address resources in China and annual change- 2006 - 2014
Chart 11 - Websites in China and annual change- 2002 - 2013
Chart 12 -Cable TV subscribers and digital TV penetration - 2007 - 2016
Chart 13 - Online video viewing by duration and device - 2014
Chart 14 - Users penetration of major video portals - 2014
Chart 15 - China Mobile market subscribers, Population Penetration, Annual Change - 2006 - 2016
Chart 16 - Mobile market share per operator - 2008 - 2015
Chart 17 - China Mobile subscribers and annual change 2006 - 2015
Chart 18 - Mobile internet subscribers and annual change - 2007 - 2014
Exhibit 1 - Restructuring of Chinas telecommunications industry
Exhibit 2 - China Telecom Corporation Ltd at a glance - 2015
Exhibit 3 - China Unicom Ltd at a glance - June2015
Exhibit 4 - Regional/international fibre optic cable networks: January 2015
Exhibit 5 - Selected Chinese satellite service providers and satellites
Exhibit 6 - China Satcom satellite fleet

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