India - Telecoms, Mobile and Broadband

India - Telecoms, Mobile and Broadband

Code: BC2015-32 | Published: Oct-2015 | Pages: 226 | Budde Communication Pty Ltd
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Telecoms in India looks towards a fresh period of growthAfter a major hiccup back in 2012, Indias mobile market had sorted itself out to a large extent by 2015 and subscriber growth looked to be running at a steady 7percent per annum. By March 2015 there were 970 million subscribers representing a mobile penetration of 77percent. Mobile penetration was likely to reach 100percent by 2020.

The overall economic impact of mobile technology in India amounted to approximately US$115 billion in value-added terms in 2014, this representing an economic contribution of around 5.5percent of the countrys GDP for the year. Looking forward, mobile broadband was set to grow exponentially throughout India, driving digital inclusion and economic growth for Indias consumers and businesses. Into 2015 4G and other data services were shaping as a key battleground. The entry of a new operator Reliance Jio into the market was expected to see even more intense competition in an already hotly competitive market.

By mid-2015 there was already considerable progress in the roll-out of 4G services:

Bharti Airtel was operating a TD-LTE network;
Bharti had also launched a trial FDD LTE network in 20 cities;
Aircel had launched 4G services;
Vodafone was planning to launch 4G in Calcutta, Mumbai and Delhi by December 2015;
Reliance Jio was set to introduce its 4G network by the end of 2015;
Idea Cellular was reported to be set to launch LTE services in January 2016;
BSNL was preparing to launch 4G by March 2016.On the regulatory front there were positive signs of a market improving on the back of restructuring. Figures from the TRAI showed that Mobile Number Portability (MNP) was working well. The process of auctioning spectrum was also working well - despite criticism that the reserve prices had been set to high. The removal of the cap on foreign investment in the telecom sector was yet another strong signal to the market of the governments intentions. The telecom market was still waiting on regulatory guidance with respect to mergers and acquisitions, however; this was important for the process of market consolidation to continue.

In the meantime, the fixed-line market, which had grown strongly over a number of years, began experiencing zero and then negative growth. Fixed-line subscriber numbers stood at around 26 million by early 2015. With less than 3percent fixed-line penetration, India had nevertheless achieved a remarkable national coverage, with 99percent of the population having some form of access to a telephone. The heavy investment in telecoms infrastructure over the last decade or so, plus a number of key regulatory initiatives that have combined to see Indias huge population delivered at least some level of telephone service.

In terms of the internet and online access, there have been a number of efforts by the government to promote broadband internet throughout the country; broadband development had long been languishing, but there was new hope for a serious expansion phase in this segment of the market. By early 2015 there were around 15.5 million fixed broadband subscribers - a lowly penetration (by population) of slightly more than 1percent. Meanwhile, mobile broadband was finally having an impact on the market and in the medium term this was expected to lift broadband penetration significantly. By March 2015 there were already more than five mobile broadband subscribers for every fixed broadband subscriber.

Although still facing serious functional and regulatory challenges, there is much that is positive to be found in Indias telecom industry. Sweeping reforms introduced by successive governments over the last decade or so have dramatically changed the nature of telecommunications in the country. A number of factors have been responsible for the amazing growth in Indias telecom sector; apart from the obvious booming economy and the rapid expansion in the countrys middle class, the growth drivers include low tariffs, low handset prices and most notably a highly competitive market created by the government and the regulators.
Key developments:

overall growth in Indias telecom market remains fundamentally strong; but the huge mobile market has been going through a period of uncertainty;
the consequences of the 2G corruption scandal have continued to impact on the industry;
mobile broadband services have breathed fresh life into the broadband sector, helping increase broadband penetration across the market;
the government removed the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) cap on telecom investment;
spectrum fees continued to be a controversial issue with a major argument about the impact of the March 2015 auctions on tariffs and the financial situation of the operators;
Indias mobile subscriber base grew by 7percent in 2014 and was growing at a similar rate in 2015;
mobile penetration had reached 77percent, with room for considerably further growth;
mobile ARPUs appeared to be stabilising and was even seeing modest growth;
India has overhauled Japan to become the worlds third largest smartphone market;
new player Reliance Jio was preparing to launch its 4G network by early 2016;
Bharti Airtel cancelled its plans to purchase the assets and subscribers of Loop Mobile;
this left Loop in an impossible situation, inevitably exiting the market.
Companies mentioned in this report:
Aircel/Dishnet, Bharti Airtel, Loop Mobile (BPL Mobile), Quadrant (HFCL), Idea/Spice, Reliance Communications, Tata Teleservices, Vodafone Essar, Telewings (Uninor), Videocon, S Tel, Bharti Telenet, Reliance Infocomm, Reliance Jio Infocomm (RJI), Tata Teleservices, Sistema (Shyam Telelink), Swan Telecom, Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd (VSNL), Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL), Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd (MTNL), Data Access, Hughes Telecom, Videocon, AT&T, France Telecom, SingTel, Hathway Cable, Datacom.

Table of Contents


1. Key statistics
1.1 Country overview
1.1.1 Background
1.1.2 Economy
1.1.3 2G scandal
2. Telecommunications market
2.1 Overview
2.2 Digital India
2.3 Spectrum auction - March 2015
2.4 Foreign investment
2.5 Universal service
3. Regulatory environment
3.1 Overview
3.2 Telecommunications authorities
3.2.1 Ministry for Communications (MoC)
3.2.2 Department of Telecommunications (DoT)
3.2.3 Telecom Commission
3.2.4 Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI)
3.2.5 Telecom Dispute Settlement & Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT)
3.2.6 Telecom Sector Ombudsman (TSO)
3.2.7 Communications Commission of India (CCI)
3.3 Licensing circles
3.4 Regulatory developments
3.4.1 Overview
3.4.2 Regulatory developments - 2015
3.4.3 Regulatory developments - 2014
3.4.4 Blackberry
3.5 National Telecom Policies
3.5.1 National Telecom Policies 1999 (NTP-99)
3.5.2 Addendum to NTP-99
3.5.3 New National Telecom Policy
3.5.4 National Broadband Policy 2004
3.5.5 Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF)
3.5.6 12th Five Year Plan (2012 - 2017)
3.6 National security
3.6.1 Import of Chinese telecom equipment
4. Major operators
4.1 Major operators in India
4.1.1 Market overview
4.1.2 Unified Access Service Licences (UASL)
4.1.3 Mergers and acquisitions
4.1.4 BSNL/MTNL
4.2 Operator and market statistics
4.2.1 Mobile market
4.2.2 Fixed-line market
4.3 Aircel
4.4 Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL)
4.4.1 Overview
4.4.2 Mobile business
4.4.3 Fixed-line business
4.4.4 Broadband business
4.5 Bharti Airtel
4.5.1 Overview
4.5.2 Financials
4.5.3 Corporate structure
4.5.4 Mobile business
4.5.5 Fixed-line and broadband businesses
4.5.6 International businesses
4.6 Hughes Telecom
4.7 Idea Cellular
4.7.1 Overview
4.7.2 Financials
4.7.3 Background
4.7.4 Corporate structure
4.7.5 3G development
4.7.6 4G / LTE
4.8 Loop Mobile
4.8.1 Overview
4.8.2 Bharti Airtels proposed buy out
4.8.3 Deactivation of Loops network
4.8.4 Background
4.9 Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL)
4.9.1 Overview
4.9.2 Corporate structure
4.9.3 Mobile business
4.9.4 Fixed-line and broadband business
4.10 Quadrant
4.11 Reliance Communications
4.11.1 Overview
4.11.2 Financials
4.11.3 Corporate structure
4.11.4 Mobile business
4.11.5 Fixed-line business
4.11.6 International business
4.12 Reliance Jio Infocomm
4.13 Sistema
4.13.1 Overview
4.13.2 Mobile business
4.13.3 Fixed-line business
4.14 Tata Teleservices
4.14.1 Overview
4.14.2 Corporate structure
4.14.3 Mobile business
4.14.4 Fixed-line business
4.14.5 International business: Tata Communications
4.15 Telewings (formerly Uninor)
4.15.1 Overview
4.15.2 Problems following 2G licence cancellation
4.16 Videocon
4.17 Vodafone
4.17.1 Overview
4.17.2 Tax dispute
4.17.3 Financials
4.17.4 Corporate background
4.17.5 Operational background
4.17.6 Strategic development
4.17.7 3G
4.17.8 4G / LTE
4.17.9 Fixed-line business
4.18 Other operators and service providers
4.18.1 Mobile operators
4.18.2 MVNO market
4.18.3 Fixed network operators
4.18.4 Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
4.18.5 Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT)
4.19 Former operators
4.19.1 Etisalat DB Telecom (Swan Telecom)
4.19.2 Spice Telecom
4.19.3 S Tel
5. Telecommunications infrastructure
5.1 National infrastructure
5.1.1 Overview
5.1.2 Statistics
5.1.3 Forecasts - fixed-line subscribers - 2015; 2017; 2020
5.1.4 Background to network development
5.1.5 Infrastructure sharing
5.1.6 Rural and regional networks
5.1.7 Fibre optic cable projects
5.1.8 National Optical Fibre Network (NOFN)
5.1.9 Wireless Local Loop (WLL) - background
5.2 Infrastructure developments
5.2.1 IP networks
5.2.2 Next Generation Networks (NGN)
5.3 International infrastructure
5.3.1 Background
5.3.2 Interconnect agreements
5.3.3 India-Pakistan
5.3.4 International service disruption
5.3.5 Submarine cable networks
5.3.6 Satellite communications
6. Internet market
6.1 Overview
6.2 Internet statistics
6.3 Forecasts- internet services - 2015; 2017: 2020
6.4 Aspects of the internet market
6.4.1 Internet of Things (IoT)
6.4.2 Smart cities
6.4.3 Investment in IT infrastructure
6.4.4 E-medicine
6.4.5 IPv4/IPv6
6.4.6 Cloud services
6.4.7 Data centres
6.5 Regulatory issues
6.5.1 Internet policy: background
6.5.2 Internet policy: development
6.5.3 National Internet Exchange of India (NIXI)
6.5.4 Control of the internet in India
6.5.5 International connectivity
6.6 Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
6.6.1 Foreign Exchange transactions
7. Broadband market
7.1 Broadband networks and services
7.1.1 Overview
7.1.2 Background
7.1.3 Broadband statistics
7.1.4 National Broadband Policy
7.1.5 National Broadband Plan
7.1.6 Broadband technologies
7.1.7 Satellite
8. Digital media
8.1 Broadcasting Market
8.1.1 Overview
8.1.2 TV piracy
8.1.3 Digital media
8.1.4 Market statistics
8.1.5 Regulatory issues
8.2 TV and the transition to digital
8.2.1 Overview
8.2.2 Internet Protocol TV (IPTV)
8.2.3 Pay TV
8.2.4 Cable TV
8.2.5 Satellite TV
8.2.6 Major cable and pay TV operators
8.2.7 Free-to-Air TV
9. Mobile communications
9.1 Overview of Indias mobile market
9.2 Slowing subscriber growth
9.3 Improved regulatory environment - 2014
9.4 Mobile statistics
9.5 Forecasts - Mobile services - 2015; 2017; 2020
9.6 Mobile handset / smartphone / tablet market
9.6.1 Overview
9.6.2 Background
9.7 Mobile market - geographic segments
9.8 Development issues
9.8.1 Tariffs changes for mobile broadband
9.8.2 Roaming charges
9.8.3 Spectrum allocations and spectrum auctions
9.8.4 Rural expansion
9.9 Regulatory issues
9.9.1 Background
9.9.2 Regulatory developments - 2015
9.9.3 Spectrum auction - March 2015
9.10 One nation, one number
9.11 2G corruption scandal
9.11.1 Allegations
9.11.2 Cancelled licences
9.11.3 Charges
9.11.4 Court decision, appeal and aftermath
9.11.5 CBI Report - April 2015
9.12 Re-auctioning of 2G spectrum
9.12.1 Preparation for re-auctioning
9.12.2 Re-auctioning of 2G spectrum - November 2012
9.12.3 Re-auctioning of 2G spectrum - March 2013
9.12.4 Pre the 2G licence re-auction - February 2014
9.12.5 Re-auctioning of 2G spectrum - February 2014
9.13 Mobile technologies
9.13.1 Overview of mobile technologies used in India
9.13.2 GSM
9.13.3 CDMA
9.13.4 Third Generation (3G) mobile
9.13.5 Fourth Generation (4G) / Long Term Evolution (LTE)
9.13.6 Voice-over-Long Term Evolution (VoLTE)
9.14 Mobile voice services
9.14.1 Prepaid
9.15 Mobile data services
9.15.1 Market overview
9.15.2 Short Message Service (SMS)
9.15.3 i-mode
9.15.4 BlackBerry
9.15.5 Mobile TV
9.15.6 Mobile content
Table 1 - Country statistics India - 2015
Table 2 - Telecom revenue and investment statistics - 2013
Table 3 - Telephone network statistics - March 2015
Table 4 - Internet user statistics - 2014
Table 5 - Broadband statistics - March 2015
Table 6 - Mobile statistics - March 2015
Table 7 - National telecommunications authorities
Table 8 - Indias GDP real growth rate - 2006 - 2016
Table 9 - Fixed-line services versus mobile services and penetration - March 2015
Table 10 - Foreign Direct Investment in telecom sector - 2004 - 2014
Table 11 - Telephone services to villages - March 2015
Table 12 - Historical - Number of telecom licences issued by category - 2007 - 2008
Table 13 - Number of telecom licences issued by category - 2013
Table 14 - Mobile operators and subscribers - 2014
Table 15 - Mobile operators - subscribers and annual change - 2013
Table 16 - Mobile operators - subscribers and market share - 2014
Table 17 - GSM mobile operators, subscribers and market share - 2014
Table 18 - CDMA mobile operators, subscribers and market share - 2014
Table 19 -Overall mobile ARPU - 2005 - 2014
Table 20 - Mobile ARPU by technology, prepaid/postpaid/blended - 2014
Table 21 - Mobile ARPU by technology, prepaid/postpaid/blended - 2013
Table 22 - Mobile ARPU (blended) for selected operators - March 2013
Table 23 - Fixed-line subscribers by operator - 2010 - 2014
Table 24 - Aircel mobile subscribers - 2004 - 2015
Table 25 - BSNL mobile subscribers - 2002 - 2014
Table 26 - BSNL fixed-line subscribers - 2002; 2012 - 2015
Table 27 - Bharti Airtel mobile subscribers - 2002 - 2015
Table 28 - Bharti Airtel mobile ARPU - 2004 - 2005; 2007 - 2015
Table 29 - Bharti fixed-line subscribers - 2002 - 2015
Table 30 - Idea Cellular mobile subscribers - 2002 - 2015
Table 31 - Idea Cellular 3G mobile subscribers - 2013 - 2015
Table 32 - Idea Cellular mobile ARPU - 2007 - 2011; 2013 - 2015
Table 33 - Historical - Loop Mobile (BPL) mobile subscribers - 2002 - 2014
Table 34 - MTNL mobile subscribers - 2002 - 2015
Table 35 - MTNL fixed-line subscribers - 2004; 2007; 2010 - 2015
Table 36 - Quadrant mobile subscribers - 2012 - 2015
Table 37 - Quadrant fixed-line subscribers - 2012 - 2015
Table 38 - Reliance mobile subscribers - 2002 - 2015
Table 39 - Reliance 3G subscribers - 2012 - 2015
Table 40 - Reliance mobile ARPU - 2007 - 2015
Table 41 - Reliance fixed-line subscribers - 2005 - 2015
Table 42 - Sistema mobile subscribers - 2008 - 2015
Table 43 - Sistema fixed-line subscribers - 2010 - 2015
Table 44 - Tata Teleservices mobile subscribers - 2002 - 2015
Table 45 - Tata fixed-line subscribers - 2011 - 2015
Table 46 - Telewings (formerly Uninor) mobile subscribers - 2009 - 2015
Table 47 - Videocon mobile subscribers - 2010 - 2015
Table 48 - Vodafone mobile subscribers - 2002 - 2015
Table 49 - Vodafone 3G mobile subscribers - 2014 - 2015
Table 50 - Vodafone - mobile ARPU - 2008 - 2015
Table 51 - Vodafone fixed-line subscribers - 2011 - 2015
Table 52 - Number of licensed ISPs - 2002 - 2003; 2005; 2008 - 2013
Table 53 - ISP market - leading operators, subscribers and market share - 2014
Table 54 - VSAT service providers, subscribers and market share - March 2015
Table 55 - Historical - Etisalat mobile subscribers - 2010 - 2012
Table 56 - Historical - Spice Telecom mobile subscribers - 2002 - 2008
Table 57 - Historical - S Tel mobile subscribers - 2009 - 2012
Table 58 - Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity - 2005 - 2015
Table 59 - Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity (historical) - 1995 - 2005
Table 60 - Fixed-line subscribers and market share by operator - 2014
Table 61 - Forecast fixed line subscribers and penetration rates - 2015; 2017; 2020
Table 62 - Growth of VPT scheme - 2001 - 2015
Table 63 - PCOs in operation - 2003 - 2004; 2007 - 2015
Table 64 - PCOs in operation and market share by operator - 2014
Table 65 - Historical - Fixed WLL subscribers - 2004 - 2006
Table 66 - Internet users - 1995 - 2015
Table 67 - Historical - Fixed internet subscribers and penetration - 1995 - 2005
Table 68 - Fixed internet subscribers and penetration - 2006 - 2015
Table 69 - Dial-up internet subscribers - 2007 - 2013
Table 70 - Internet household penetration - 2005 - 2015
Table 71 - International internet bandwidth - 2000 - 2015
Table 72 - Forecast fixed internet subscribers - 2015; 2017; 2020
Table 73 - Fixed broadband subscribers - 2001 - 2015
Table 74 - Fixed broadband subscribers - market share by access type - 2014
Table 75 - Fixed broadband subscribers and households - March 2015
Table 76 - Mobile broadband subscribers - 2007 - 2015
Table 77 - DSL subscribers - 2001 - 2014
Table 78 - Cable modem subscribers - 2001 - 2014
Table 79 - FttX subscribers - 2010 - 2014
Table 80 - Broadcasting market overview - 2014
Table 81 - Cable and TV households - 1995 - 2014
Table 82 - Total TV industry estimated revenue - 2000 - 2014
Table 83 - Pay TV subscribers by technology - 2003- 2014
Table 84 - Number of channels carried by cable operators - 2011 - 2014
Table 85 - DTH subscribers - 2008 - 2015
Table 86 - Overview of Indias mobile market - 2012 - 2015
Table 87 - Mobile subscribers, annual change and penetration - 2006 - 2015
Table 88 - Mobile subscribers (GSM and CDMA) - 2002 - 2015
Table 89 - GSM mobile subscribers and annual change - 1997 - 2015
Table 90 - Mobile penetration in urban and rural areas - 2007; 2009 - 2015
Table 91 - Mobile services revenue - 1996 - 2014
Table 92 - Mobile ARPU by technology, prepaid/postpaid/blended - 2014
Table 93 - Mobile ARPU by technology, prepaid/postpaid/blended - 2013
Table 94 - Mobile ARPU (GSM and CDMA) - 2005 - 2015
Table 95 - Forecast mobile subscribers - 2015; 2017; 2020
Table 96 -GSM mobile subscribers by region/circle - 2012 - 2014
Table 97 - GSM ARPU - 2003 - 2015
Table 98 - GSM ARPU by region/circle, prepaid/postpaid/blended - March 2015
Table 99 - GSM mobile operators, subscribers and market share - March 2015
Table 100 - GSM ARPU by operator grouping, prepaid/postpaid/blended - 2014
Table 101 - GSM ARPU by operator grouping, prepaid/postpaid/blended - 2013
Table 102 - CDMA mobile operators, subscribers and market share - 2014
Table 103 - CDMA mobile operators, subscribers and market share - 2013
Table 104 - CDMA ARPU - 2003 - 2015
Table 105 - CDMA ARPU by region/circle, prepaid/postpaid/blended - 2013
Table 106 - CDMA ARPU by region/circle, prepaid/postpaid/blended - 2013
Table 107 - 3G auction (2010): Number of licences and total fees paid by operators
Table 108 - Prepaid mobile subscribers: share of total market - 2003 - 2014
Table 109 - SMS traffic by technology and subscriber - 2011 - 2014
Chart 1 - Mobile operators and subscribers - 2013
Chart 2 - Mobile operators market share by subscribers - 2014
Chart 3 - Market share of fixed-line basic services by operator - 2014
Chart 4 - ISP market - leading operators, subscribers and market share - 2014
Chart 5 - Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity - 2005 - 2015
Chart 6 - Fixed-line subscribers and teledensity (historical) - 1995 - 2005
Chart 7 - PCOs in operation and market share by operator - 2014
Chart 8 - Fixed internet subscribers and penetration 2006 - 2015
Chart 9 - Fixed broadband subscribers and penetration - 2005-2015
Chart 10 - Fixed broadband market share by access type - 2014
Chart 11 - DSL subscribers - 2005-2014
Chart 12 - Cable modem subscribers - 2001-2013
Chart 13 - Cable and TV households and TV industry revenue: 2004 - 2014
Chart 14 - Pay TV subscribers by technology 2005-2014
Chart 15 - Mobile subscribers and penetration - 2006 - 2015
Chart 16 - Mobile subscribers (GSM and CDMA) - 2002-2015
Chart 17 - GSM mobile subscribers and annual change - 2005-2015
Chart 18 - Mobile penetration urban and rural - 2007; 2009-2015
Chart 19 - Mobile ARPU (GSM and CDMA) - 2005-2015
Chart 20 - GSM mobile operator market share - 2015
Chart 21 - CDMA mobile operator market share - 2013
Exhibit 1- Fixed-line basic services by operator - 2014
Exhibit 2 - Major shareholders in Bharti Airtel - March 2015
Exhibit 3 - Bharti Airtel - mobile operations - key statistics
Exhibit 4 - Idea Cellular - mobile operations - key statistics
Exhibit 5 - Reliance Communications linked with Reliance Industries Ltd
Exhibit 6 - Reliance Communications - mobile operations - key statistics
Exhibit 7 - Tata Teleservices - mobile operations - key statistics
Exhibit 8 - Vodafone - mobile operations - key statistics
Exhibit 9 - International submarine cable systems with landing points in India
Exhibit 10 - ISRO satellite network
Exhibit 11 - Schedule for migration to Digital Addressable Cable TV System (DAS) - 2012 - 2014
Exhibit 12 - Broadcasting Standard and major broadcasters
Exhibit 13 - Information on FTA turned Pay and New Pay Channels
Exhibit 14 - Overview of major channels available to consumers in India
Exhibit 15 - Operators issued DTH licences - March 2015
Exhibit 16 - Operators / licences affected by 2G licensing process cancellation - February 2012
Exhibit 17 - CDMA 3G commercial deployment in India

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